On Sunday 28 July 2019 we visited the National Field of Honour Loenen. Very impressive. A guide of the Dutch War Graves Foundation gave a guided tour along the graves.Nationaal Ereveld Loenen is an honorary cemetery located in Loenen near Apeldoorn, which was inaugurated on 21 March 1949 and officially opened on 18 October 1949 by Princess Wilhelmina. There are almost 4000 Dutch war victims. They are civilians who have resisted the occupying forces or perished during combat operations. In addition to the graves of fallen soldiers from the Second World War, the site is also home to the graves of resistance fighters, forced labourers, Jews, prisoners of war, people in hiding and victims from the former Dutch East Indies. Since the 1980s, the field of honour has not only been the last resting place for victims of the Second World War. Military personnel and civilians who died during humanitarian and peace missions are also buried or reburied there.
The entrance of Field of Honour Loenen

My wife Elly prints out a route along the graves via an information column.
Bastiaan Jan Ader ('s-Gravenzande, 30 December 1909 - Veenendaal, 20 November 1944) was a Dutch minister and resistance fighter during the Second World War.

After his studies Ader made a solo pilgrimage by bicycle from Amsterdam to Jerusalem in 1937. From 1938 he was a pastor in the Dutch Reformed church in Nieuw-Beerta. Since the beginning of the war he worked in the resistance within the LO. His resistance name was 'Van Zaanen'. During the war his presbytery became a centre for helping Jews, people in hiding and pilots. Ader and his wife Johanna Adriana Ader-Appels themselves took in eight people in hiding and took care of the hiding of many others and arranged the distribution receipt cards. Dr. Ader was involved in rescuing Jews from the Hollandsche Schouwburg in Amsterdam. In 1944 he was the pivot of a plan to release Camp Westerbork. His early arrest blocked the execution of the plan. Resistance
The minister also did a lot of resistance work outside his own municipality. When he was on his way to Haarlem on 22 July 1944, he was arrested and imprisoned in Haarlem and soon afterwards transferred to the prison on the Weteringschans in Amsterdam. As a reprisal for an attack on a German soldier, he was executed by Veenendaal and initially buried there. After the war, a white cross was placed on the fusion site, which was renewed at the seventy-year anniversary of the event. Annually a commemoration takes place at the cross on the mountain on 20 November. After the war, the body was transferred from Ader to the Field of Honour Loenen.

One of the children of Ader was the artist Bas Jan Ader. In 2006 Wiebe Klijnstra made the documentary Tough and fiercely fought about the minister for RTV Noord. During the seventy-year anniversary of the fusilage, trees were planted on the grounds of Ichthus College in Veenendaal for Rev Ader and the other five men with whom he died. In May 2015 "The cross on the mountain" appeared, in which their resistance work is described.


Source: Wikipedia

 

Martinus Antonius Marie Bouman. Born on 5 mei 1899 at Gouda, former 1e lieutenant of KNIL, chief controller of the C.C.D. (Central Control Department) in Roermond. Bouman was first in his own circle and later, as a member of the Order Service, leader of the underground resistance, with the pseudonyms Bob Eikenhout. With the car at his disposal as a civil servant, he transported many members of allied aircrew and allied prisoners of war who had escaped from Germany to safer places, for which he was awarded posthumously by the American, British and French governments.

Bouman played an important role in the April-May strike in Central Limburg. He made calls for strikes and circulated a declaration of solidarity among CCD personnel for signature. This led the Sipo to track him down. When he heard that two of his arrested subordinates would be shot if he did not come forward, he immediately drove to the Sicherheits Polizei in Maastricht and volunteered for duty. He requested the release of his subordinates, because he had ordered them to go on strike. Bouman and the two colleagues and four others had to appear before the police stand trial in Maastricht on 2 May 1943. Nitsch accused him of having made a call for a strike, which had been distributed by the two others to the CCD. His demand for the death penalty was accepted by the court. In the evening of the same day Bouman and six others were executed on De Hamert. Because of his handicap (Bouman suffered from multiple sclerosis) he could not stand up. Nitsch therefore allowed him to undergo his execution while sitting on a chair on a platform. He and Boogerd were reburied on 8 July 1946 under great interest at the cemetery 'Tussen de Bergen' in Roermond. Bouman is now buried on the Dutch Field of Honour in Loenen, section E grave number 55. His widow received on 10 August 1953 posthumously the knighthood in the Military Order of William 4th class from Queen Juliana. A street is named after Bouman in Roermond.

 

Sources: J. Keltjens e.a., Arcen ín dorp in oorlogstijd (Arcen 1986) 54-57; A.P.M. Cammaert, Het verborgen front. Een geschiedenis van de georganiseerde illegaliteit in de provincie Limburg tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog (Leeuwarden/Mechelen 1994)

 

Before the war, Jan Thijssen worked as an electrical engineer at the PTT, where he was involved in tracing illegal transmitters.
When the Germans invaded our country, he soon came up with the idea of setting up a national radio network for the benefit of illegality. In 1942 he came into contact with the Ordedienst (O.D.), one of the most important national underground organisations that was run by professional officers and had a military character. He developed his plan to the chief of staff of the O.D. Jonkheer P.J. Six who agreed with it. Thanks to Thijssen's efforts, the national network of connections was largely completed in 1942. He received a great deal of support from the chemist J. Hoekstra, who worked for the N.V. Philips in Eindhoven, and with the help of a family member he managed to get hold of parts from the Philips factories that were important to the radio network, illegally.

Thijssen then became disappointed when it became clear to him that the O.D. wanted to use his radionet exclusively for its own purposes. He was a supporter of a new umbrella organization that had to fully focus on active resistance such as sabotage and had to be in close contact with the Allies. At the end of April 1943, together with six other illegal workers, including the communist D. van der Meer from Amersfoort, he founded the "Council of Resistance in the Kingdom of the Netherlands" (R.V.V.).
Van der Meer withdrew a month later and was succeeded by G. Wagenaar, one of the national leaders of the Military Commission (M.C.), the resistance organization of the Communist Party of the Netherlands (C.P.N.).
During the April-May strikes in 1943, which spontaneously broke out as a result of the announcement by the German general Christiansen that all former soldiers of the Dutch army had to go back into captivity immediately, Thijssen called for a boycott of the measure and for sabotage. He was the first to inform London of the strikes and his intended actions through his own channel.

The R.V.V. carried out liquidations during 1943 and 1944, robbed distribution offices and population registers and carried out acts of sabotage.
However, the aim of the R.V.V. to obtain an overarching function within the active resistance was not achieved. This was partly due to the fact that the resistance magazine "De Waarheid", published by the illegal C.P.N., increasingly began to identify with the R.V.V., as a result of which the organisation was given a communist stamp, albeit wrongly. The O.D. and the R.V.V. couldn't get along either, so the chief of staff of the O.D. Jonkheer P.J. Six in December 1943 put Jan Thijssen aside as head of the radio service of the O.D. There was also a lot of rivalry between the R.V.V. and the Landelijke Knokploegen (L.K.P.).

From April 1944 the R.V.V. maintained a broadcasting connection with the London-based Bureau of Intelligence (B.I.), which was partly established by Thijssen's friend and employee A.W.M. Ausems, who had been trained as a secret agent in England. In July 1944 there was a meeting of the national leaders of the R.V.V. at castle Deurne. At this meeting Thijssen proposed to set up an Operations Centre which he himself would lead. The existing R.V.-groups also had to be transformed into small sabotagegroups in the short term, who mainly had to take action against the German Army.

The Allied advance in Western Europe is faster than planned, partly due to the local resistance. At the end of August the L.K.P. and the R.V.V. were also supplied with weapon drops for the first time and the Allied Supreme Command gave the go-ahead for large-scale sabotage actions of the Dutch railway network. However, there was also division between the R.V.V. of Jan Thijssen and the L.K.P. of Frank van Bijnen, who was appointed National Sabotage Commander within the L.K.P. on 25 August 1944. Problems could not be avoided and on 12 September the new commander of the Interior Armed Forces (B.S.) ordered Prince Bernhard to the L.K.P., the R.V.V. and the O.D. to hold consultations (the so-called Delta consultation) in order to put an end to the counterproductive rivalry between the different organizations. Colonel Henri Koot accepted the request to take over the command of the B.S.. He did, however, stipulate that he would be allowed to establish his headquarters in Amsterdam. However, Jan Thijssen and Frank van Bijnen were involved day and night in the underground operations around the battle of Arnhem that was going on at that time. As a result, they were not present at the Delta meeting in Amsterdam. As a result, the O.D. drew more and more power to itself. Something that Thijssen did not tolerate. He wanted the dropped weapon itself. He also came into conflict with Frank van Bijnen and threatened a crisis with the B.S. The weeks of protracted quarrel comes to an eruption when on 1 November 'Commander Delta' Koot Jan Thijssen resigns from his position. A few days later Thijssen was arrested by the Germans on 8 November 1944 on the motorway from Rotterdam to The Hague when he drove along in a Red Cross car. Thijssen was transferred to the prison in Zwolle. Jan Thijssen was shot on 8 March. He was one of the 116 prisoners (mostly resistance fighters) who came from various prisons and were shot at the Woeste Hoeve as reprisal for the attack on SS-Obergruppenfuhrer und General der Waffen-SS und der Polizei, Hans Rauter. The prisoners were executed in five groups of twenty and one of sixteen at Woeste Hoeve at the location of the attack. The German Oberwachtmeister der Ordnungspolizei Helmut Seijffards, who refused to be part of the firing squad, was also executed on the spot. Of all the people who were led to the execution site, Jan Thijssen was the only one who tried to escape, a remarkable example of rebellion and resistance to the bitter end. In his Zwolle cell he wrote a number of slogans on the wall "We don't knock down a storm wind", "The heart alone knows its own sadness" and "Sorry, sorrows and terror by thin and thick. Death always in sight after terribly directed. Stepped on undaunted until the sun of freedom dares!".

Source: Traces of War

 

Veterans who served in the Dutch army are given their own cemetery next to the Field of Honour in Loenen. On the Field of Honour itself there is only room for soldiers who have been killed during acts of war or peace missions.

18 April 2008: First Lieutenant Dennis van Uhm (23)  and Private Mark Schouwink (22) are killed during a displacement north of Tarin Kowt. Van Uhm is the son of General Peter van Uhm, who the day before had succeeded Dick Berlin as Commander of the Armed Forces. The soldiers ride with their MB-jeep on a roadside bomb. Two other occupants are badly injured.

Source: Dutch War Grave Foundation

Although numerous dead had already been (re)buried at the Field of Honour in Loenen, Princess Wilhelmina did not officially open the Field of Honour until 18 October 1949. She herself laid a wreath in the shape of a daisy under the wooden wall plate with the deceased English sailors on it. This wall plate, which during the war hung in the London home of Engelandvaarders 'Oranje Haven', was donated by Princess Wilhelmina to the War Graves Foundation.