Content Mobilization  War  1940  1941  1942  1943  1944  Liberation  After liberation 


De Grote Markt before the war. On the right the infamous Scholtenhuis, used by the Sicherheitsdienst (SD)




On August 29, 1939 the total mobilization took place. This soldier is brought by his wife to the Groningen train station to travel to his mobilization destination by train.

At the station in Groningen this military says goodbye to his family to go to his mobilization destination. While his wife and his youngest daughter burst into tears, he kisses his youngest. A striking photograph that shows that it was very difficult to say goodbye to face an uncertain future.

Sandbags for PTT office in 1940.

Soldiers during mobilization winter 1939-1940 at Stadskanaal.

Defense at the Ruiten A Channal during the mobilization in 1940.

Taping windows against shards before the outbreak of the war on May 10, 1940.





On May 10, 1940 the Newspaper of the North  appeared with the dramatic announcement that Germany has attacked the Netherlands.

Arch Bridge in Winsum blown up on May 10, 1940.

Blown up bridge in Ten Post on May 10th, 1940.




Already in 1940 emergency money was printed.

Fundraise in Veendam 1940

German direction signs in Groningen 1940

Seyss Inquart on the northside of the Grote Markt 1940

1940 Action against the Nederlandse Unie in Veendam

1940 Action against the Nederlandse Unie at the Zwanestraat in Groningen

1940 The dismissed Ontslagen Royal Commissioner J. Lindhorst Homan with his family.

Dutch soldiers return from German captivity June 15th, 1940

1940 Destruction on the corner Westersingel and Verlengde Visserstraat

1940 Davastated house Reitdiepskade in Groningen

German troops on the Grote Markt in Groningen during a victory parade in May 1940



In the course of 1941 in parks and on public places signs appeared with the text 'Forbidden for Jews', as a precursor to the Holocaust.

1941 the WA marching in de Gelkingestraat

Handing Copper, nickel, tin and lead on August 10th, 1941.


Seyss Inquart leaving Scholtenhuis

On the facade of the town hall hangs a swastika flag.

1941 Ortskommandantur at the Ubbo Emmiussingel

Wreck Bleinheim Oosterhogebrug, March 1st, 1941.

German pilot and his radioman when they shot at Wellington at Jipsinghuizen Westerwolde, March 13, 1941

Spontaneous floral tribute to British airmen shot down, July 13, 1941

Western part of Groningen hit by high explosive and incendiary bombs bar on Friday, September 26, 1941

Jozef Israėlsstraat, September 26, 1941.

Anti-German inscription




In 1942, the bells of the churches were robbed to be melted in favor of the war industry.

1942 clocks robbery at the Wilhelminakade

1942 clocks robbery Roman Catholic Church of the Sacred Heart on the  Moesstraat


Deportation of the Jews1942

In 1942 also the Jews in Groningen had to wear the yellow star of David.

The Jews had to have a personal identification with a J to distinguish them from other people. In German called Ausweis

1942 Jews were required to register

1942 Vismarkt forbidden for Jews.

1942 Jews are not allowed in this shelter.

1942 Jewish quarter.

1942 Propaganda on Vismarkt for the Dutch Labour front.




1943 German reaction on the strikes in April and May

1943 Hiding place in Vosseberg, between Onstwedde and Mussel

1943 Hiding place in Vosseberg, between Onstwedde and Mussel

1943 Cell vehicle district court used illegally by two sergeants

1943 De radio moet worden ingeleverd

1943 Also my father in law Harm Kreuijer has his radio handed

1943 surrendered radios on the way to Germany

1943 Hidings in their sleeping hole.

1943 hidings

Seyss Inquart leaving Scholtenhuis.

1943 Het beruchte Scholtenhuis was hoofdkwartier van de SD

Parade of the Landstorm in front of  Scholtenhuis, with V-sign in reaction of the  V-action from out Londen. The first three notes of Beethoven are the V-sign in Morse. V is Victory. The Germans wielded the slogan "V = Victory since Germany wins on all fronts.

1943 Shelter on the Vismarkt

1943 Shelter in Sint Jansstraat

1943 Inspection of Land Guards on the Grote Markt.

During occupation many German signs in front of the station.

Due to lack of fuel prisoners were taken to the police station by coach.




1944 Long queue for stripes lace cake between the two markets

1944 For cake in the row

1944 For cake in the row

1944 Yet driving despite fuel scarcity

1944 Yet driving despite fuel scarcity

1944 944 Yet driving despite fuel scarcity

1944 Distribution worries

1944 Alternative fuel scarcity

1944 Alternative fuel scarcity

1944 The RAF provides tea
1944 German propaganda billboard
1944 German propaganda billboard
1944 propaganda posters
1944 propaganda posters
1944 Members of the WA on their bicycle
1944 A pan meal
1944 The last sigaret
1944 The last cup of original coffee
1944 The last cup of original coffee
1944 Upstairs during the war years
1944 Reading the paper about D-DAY
1944 Last edition of the paper in the north of Holland 'Nieuwsblad van het Noorden'
1944 Digging wells
1944 Call for digging
1944 Quartering
1944 Inundation Bedum
1944 Inundation Overschild
1944 Moving central kitchen atVeendam
1944 Wedding in Leek
April 12th, 1945 Canadian army on the way to Groningen
Canadians marching to Groningen April 1945
Anti-tank wall on access road to Groningen, april 1945
Canadian army marching to Groningen April 1945
 Milk for The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry April 1945
German prisoners at The Punt April 13th, 1945
 Tulips for the Royal Canadian Artillery, April 13th, 1945
Lt Dave Heap on the Paterswoldseweg, April 14th, 1945
Disabled Sherman tank on the Paterswoldseweg, April 14th,1945
Disposal of German prisoners on the Paterswoldseweg at Groningen
 Belongings are brought to safety because the houses burn April 14, 1945
First hot meal in 24 hours for The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry on Paterswoldseweg April 14th, 1945
Canadian soldiers in the Guldenstraat
Girl on Canadian tank advancing towards the Grote Markt April 14, 1945
Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal in action on Radesingel on Sunday April 15th, 1945
Meeting a girl from Groningen
Artillery placed in position during fightings at Noorderplantsoen at Ernst Casimirlaan
German prisoners in Helpman on Sunday morning April 15th, 1945
Tanks are advancing to Grote Markt that is already burning April 15th, 1945
The Germans increasingly stabbing buildings in fire on Grote Markt.
Fire-fighting Grote Markt.
The city of Groningen is on fire during the fighting between the Germans and Canadians 13 to 16 April 1945.
Canadian tank in Oosterstraat with Martinitoren left on the background.
Stoeldraaierstraat after the explosion of a German ammunition car.
Canadian troops with their Bren Carriers at Oosterstraat
Canadian soldiers with a German in Guldenstraat
German prisoners on the corner of Grote Markt and Oude Boteringestraat
Surrender in Poelestraat to Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal on Monday April 16th, 1945
Surrender in Poelestraat to Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal on Monday April 16th, 1945
Enthusiasm in the liberated Poelestraat
Havoc on the corner Nieuwe Boteringestraat and Ossenmarkt
 Canadian Kent and Essex Regiment with pipes and drums on Herebrug
Residents of Groningen celebrate their liberation. Also this girl with her dog is happy.
Grote Markt destroyed during the fighting. Also the infamous Scholtenhuis lies in ruins.
The Canadians with their Bren Carriers are prepearing the battle in Oosterstraat.
Curious that the population was not scared and even watched quietly on the sidewalk in front of their houses while the Canadians were fighting with the Germans.
Canadian troops in Oosterstraat.
German prisoners
Canadians used Bren Carriers. They were small, fast and agile.
Canadian tanks and artillery advancing to the center of Groningen across  Heerebrug.
German soldiers surrender in the city
The Germans put the bridge up, but could not stop the Canadian advance
Canadezen fighting with the Germans in the city of Groningen.
Despite the figtings the people went on the street to watch the fire with their own eyes.
Battle Break of Canadian soldiers. Right hostess with her daughter.
Members of the domistic forces the so called  'Binnenlandse Strijdkrachten' (BS) walk through the streets to arrest members of the hated NSB and traitors.
The people of Groningen plunder German warehouses.
This Canadian soldier has fallen asleep. The struggle of the past few days takes its toll.
Canadian Sherman tanks advancing to Grote Markt
Special photograph of a flame-throwing Bren Carrier.
A meal for the Canadian soldiers.
The liberation of Groningen means captivity for the German soldiers.
De Bridges around in the ring arount the city center were blown up by the Germans but could not hold the Canadians in march to the city center.
The fire in the city could be seen everywhere
Many buildings on the Grote Markt were set on fire by the Germans.
Paterswoldseweg. Note the citizens who came on the street soon after the end of the fightings april 1945
Parkbrug then and now
Arrest of members of the NSB
Much damage after the figing in Groningen

German trenches in the City Park as they were affected by the Canadians on April 26, 1945nadezen op 26 april 1945

German 88 mm gun in East-Groningen camouflaged with .branches.

Transport of German prisoners on Paterswoldseweg.

 Fort Garry Horse Groningen april 1945.

Groningen station after the battle.
The citizens of Groningen welcome their liberators.

Groningen after the liberation
The Canadian liberators place road signs in the streets of Groningen.
Busy military traffic on Grote Markt
During the victory parade the citizens of Groningen were given the opportunity to thank the Canadians for the liberation.
Mayor Cort van der Linden welcomes the Canadian liberators.
Canadese Pipes and Drums in Groningen.
TAmong the ruins of the Grote Markt citizens celebrate their liberation.
liberation celebration in Groningen.
Canadian memorial service in the Martinikerk.
Canadian soldiers at de Westerhaven.
After the Battle of Groningen there are the remnants of the German occupation, as roadblock of concrete blocks
Visit by Prince Bernhard of the liberated Groningen.
After the liberation numerous fires had to be extinguished in the city.
Civilians watching the destruction on Grote Markt.
The Canadians make their camp in  Stadspark.
DCanadians in a nightspot
Trees has an Canadian...